This study aims to explore the challenges of providing primary health care (PHC) to Afghan immigrants in Tehran as an important global human right issue.


In this exploratory study, a total of 25 purposively selected PHC providers, including physicians, psychologists and midwives, were approached for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews, lasting 30 min on average. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.


The most common challenges of providing PHC to Afghan immigrants were categorized at individual, organizational and societal levels. Communication barriers and socioeconomic features emerged at the individual level. The organizational challenges included mainly the lack of insurance coverage for all immigrants and the lack of a screening system upon the immigrants’ arrival from the borders. At the societal level, the negative attitudes toward Afghan immigrants were causing a problematic challenge.


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