The complexity of health and the role of its relevant socioeconomic factors have led countries to adopt new approaches to promote health, including the socialization of health. This comparative study aimed at examining the patterns of the social approach to health in 9 selected countries.


Using the scoping review method, we collected the data by searching published articles in databases and the websites of the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and the World Bank. A total of 66 articles were included in the study based on the PRISMA protocol.


The thematic analysis showed that the most efficient model among middle-income countries was the one that consisted of good governance, effective social participation, empowerment of mothers and children. The study findings also revealed that considering social welfare, governance social participation, empowerment, and health literacy, Ecuador, Bulgaria, Egypt, and Cuba had the highest scores among the selected countries, respectively.

We define socialization of health as public engagement in maintaining and promoting individual and social and psychological health in the society, a part of which is achieved through community-based medical education.


In Iran, the centralized structure of the health system and inadequate transparency and accountability of the government have led to restricted public participation and poor intersectional collaboration. We propose empowering civil society, setting up free political parties, and implementing the family medicine project as an effective policy for improving the socialization of health to achieve sustainable development goals in Iran.


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