Background: Primary healthcare (PHC) is the best method to provide primary healthcare for the people, and is the most efficient and effective way to achieve and improve a high level of health in any society. Failure to pay attention to PHC and low-quality health services can lead to an increase in various diseases, and consequently a higher number of death toll in any society, which would cause economic damages. PHC in Iran received a lot of attention after the revolution in 1979. In PHC, a healthcare network was established throughout the country. With the development of PHC in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the causes of death have decreased, and the death due to infectious diseases, pregnancy, and childbirth problems have also decreased. Despite the vast achievements of PHC in Iran, in recent years, enough attention has not been paid to its reconstruction and consecration. Lack of sufficient financial resources, non-implementation of family doctors in cities and executive problems in family doctors, lack of human resources, lack of attention to the education of students in the health sector, their lack of students’ interest in learning the activities of this field, and structural and administrative problems are some of the existing challenges. Results of the present study suggest that policymakers in Iran need to invest more in PHC in order to improve health indicators, reduce patient admissions to hospitals, and make more appropriate use of limited financial resources. Using the infrastructure that already exists in this sector and strengthening the network of PHC play an important role in reducing household expenses; also, the position of the family doctor and its functions can be properly implemented in the society. Keywords: Primary healthcare, Iran, Health policy.