Abstract

Groundwater is a viable alternative when access to surface water resources is limited. Iron and manganese are known ions in soil and naturally in groundwater sources. However, human activities also are responsible. To identifying the best module for removing manganese and iron in the water treatment plant (WTP) of Mazandaran, 516 samples were taken from raw and treated water. The concentration of manganese, iron, was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and turbidity was used with the nephelometry method. The water pollution index (WPI) was applied for categorizing the status of pollution in treated water. The effect of seasonal temperature and backwashing (At flow rates of 3.5, 9.2, and 15.3 m h-1) on the sand filter efficiency was also investigated. The highest concentrations of manganese, iron, and turbidity in raw water were 0.744, 6.70 mg L-1, and 41.8 NTU, and in treated water were 0.67, 1.09 mg L-1, and 5.58 NTU, respectively. The mean concentration of manganese and iron in raw and treated water were 0.24 ± 0.1, 0.93 ± 0.91, 0.105 ± 0.06 and 0.18 ± 0.14 mg L-1 respectively. The WPI statuses in drinking water were excellent for manganese and iron in 95.74 and 53.88 % of the samples and very poor in 1.16 and 12.01 % of the samples, respectively, and its classification for drinking water for manganese and iron was excellent ˃ good ˃ extremely polluted ˃ polluted and the concentration of iron was more than manganese in treated water. The study of temperature’s effect on sand filters showed that the removal efficiency in warm seasons was higher than in cold seasons. Also, the turbulence in the backwash with the 9.2 m h− 1 rates, is lesser than other speeds, and in this flow, after 270 s, the turbidity decreases to less than 10 NTU. Spearman correlation comparison showed that the parameters amounts after filtration decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) in comparison to raw water. The results showed that module #1 that used open-aeration and chlorine as oxidations, was most effective in removing iron and manganese. In the end, the WTP couldn’t diminish the parameters completely and need subsidiary units.

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