Health technology assessment (HTA) is a comprehensive and structured evaluation that aims to analyze the potential impacts of health technologies, including medical devices, diagnostic tools, pharmaceuticals, and public health interventions. Its purpose is to provide policymakers with evidence-based information to inform decisions related to the utilization and implementation of these technologies. HTA allows for the comparison of various scenarios related to a technology across a wide range of factors. This can aid in the creation of an essential drug list and health benefits package that is tailored to the actual needs of the community within a given healthcare system. In the present paper, we review the role of Iran’s context for the development of HTA, in terms of challenges and solutions.