Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently causing various challenges for all countries around the world. Accordingly, the WHO is placing a great emphasis on the global partnership and allinaces to drive countries towards developing policy guidances and a strategic framework for AMR contatiment. This study thus seeks to elaborate on the international factors underlying AMR management in Iran.


Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from the Ministry of health (n = 14), Iran veterinary organization (n = 4), the national professional associations (n = 3) and researchers (n = 3), between November 2018 and July 2019. Participants were selected using purposeful and snowball sampling. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and were subsequently coded and analyzed thematically using MAXQDA software (V.18) and reported.


International enabling and predisposing factors were identified in relation to the AMR control in the country. Enabling factors included knowledge transfer, facilitation in policy agenda setting, formulation and implementaion process, and AMR monitoring. Predisposing factors, alternatively, encompassed the migration of infectious patients, trafficking of medicine and livestock from neighboring countries, and the imposed sanctions.


Nowadays, AMR is taken cognizance of as a global challenge, thus to be addressed effectively, needs an international consensus more than ever. This harmony would not certainly underrate national efforts, but instead, is needed to reinforce such efforts through e.g. technical and financial assistance. It is suggested for policymakers to use all available political and legal means such as health diplomacy to establish humanitarian channels in order to enhance global convention and remove possible barriers as the sanctions and reduce their adverse consequences for AMR control.


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